CSIR Notes

Revision Points:-

Monoclonal antibodies were first discovered by George Kohler and Cesar Milstein (1974) whos proposed that normal antibody-producing cells can be used to fuse and inhibit cells from cancerous tumors and called Myelomas

Immobilization of enzymes

It is the process of fixing enzyme in a solid support so as to protect it from deactivating and attack of proteases, maintain enzyme purity, ability to recover it after the reaction and perform the continuous reaction.

The methods which include covalently attaching the enzyme to a solid support, trapping it in a gel, cross-linking the enzyme molecules to one another, encapsulating them in a small artificial cell is called Immobilization of enzyme.

Important Enzyme Playing Role in Medicine

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA-Enzyme)

TPA-Enzyme is used to dissolve blood clots especially in people suffering from heart disorders. It is obtained from the cultures of hemolytic Streptococci bacteria. It has the fibrinolytic effect.

Protein modifying enzymes

Some enzymes are known to modify proteins for human use. e.g. Conversion of pig insulin into human insulin is called Pseumcelin.

The contribution of the important scientist in Antibiotics

Pasteur and Jaubert (1877) – Certain saprophytic bacteria can kill Anthrax bacilli (Bacillus anthracis).

Gralia and Dath (1924) – Produced Actinomycetes from filamentous fungus Actinomycetes.

Sir Alexander Flemming (1928) – First antibiotic drug penicillin from the blue-green fungus Penicillium notatum in agar medium of Staphylococcus which cause the throat infection.

Waksman and  Woodruff (1944) – Isolated streptomycin from a soil organism, Streptomyces griseus.

Burkholder (1947) – Isolated chloromycetin from Streptomyces venezuelae.

Duggar (1950) – Isolated aureomycin from Streptomyces aurofaciens and Terramycin from Streptomyces ramosus.

Maguire (1952) – Extracted erythromycin from Streptomyces erytheraeus.

Brode spectrum antibiotics

These are the antibiotics which have the ability to act on several pathogenic species differing from each other in structure and composition of the cell wall.