The Living World

The Living World

The biological names originate from Latin and are printed in italics (NEET-I 2016).

The uninomial nomenclature is the designation of a taxon above species ranked by a scientific name consisting of a single word(Chattishgarh PMT 2015).

The correct hierarchical arrangement of the taxonomic category of plants in descending order is: (J&K 2015)

Kingdom → Division → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species.

Central National Herbarium is the largest herbarium in south-East Asia. It is situated within the Botanical Garden at Sibpur in Kolkata, West Bangel, India.(MHT CET 2014).

Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) consisting carbon, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus are capable of replicating on their own, therefore, considered as the basis of life (AIIMS 2014).

Museums have the collection of preserved plants and animal specimens for study and reference. Specimens are preserved in the containers of preservatives while Herbarium is a storehouse having collected dried, pressed and preserved plant specimens on sheets.Botanical gardens have collections of living plants for reference. (NEET 2013).

The scientific names are unique to an organism, i.e. these names are used all over the world, to describe some important characters of the organism, it also indicates the species and genus of the organism(KCET 2012).

The cohort is the formal taxonomic category in between infraclass and superorder. The cohort is used by paleontologists(WB JEE 2012).

Class → Subclass→ Infraclass→ Cohort→ Superorder→ Order→ Family → Genus.

Important Branches of Biology

This is a collection of important branches of biology asked in various exams.

Acarology –  The study of ticks and mites.

Agrostology – Study of grasses.

Anthology (Bessey) – Study of flowers and flowering plants.

Anthropology – Study of related to origin, development, and culture of the present and past races of humans.

Apiculture – Rearing of bees.

Aquaculture – Rearing and management of aquatic animals.

Arthrology – Study of joints.

Biochemistry – Science connected with chemistry of living matter

Biomedical Engineering – Designing and production of equipment for overcoming various defects.

Biometrics (Biometry = Biostatistics) – Statistical study of biological prolems.

Biotechnology – Technology connected with employing living beings or their products in industrial processes.

Bonsai – The art and hobby of growing dwarf forms of trees and shrubs in pots.

Cardiology – The study of heart.

Cell Biology – Study of cell in all their aspects.

Chirology – Communication system for deaf and mute by sign language.

Chorology – Biogeography.

Conchology – Study of shells.

Cryobiology – Biology of the organism, tissues, embryos, etc. cooled to low temperature.

Cteology – Branch of biology connected with acquired characters.

Demography – Study of populations.

Dendrochronology – Counting and analyzing annual growth rings of trees.

Dendrology (=Xylology) – Study of trees and shrubs.

Dermatology – Study of skin and other body coverings.

Dysteleology – Study of the appearance of vestigial organs due to evolution.

Ecology – Inter-relation between organisms and environment.

Economic Botany/Economic Zoology – Branch dealing with commercially exploited/exploitable plants/animals.

Edaphology/Paedology/pedology – Soil science.

Embryology – Study of gametogenesis, fertilization and development of the zygote into the embryo or miniature offspring.

Epidemiology – Study of distribution, causes and control measures of infectious diseases.

Ethnobotany – Relationships between primitive humans and plants.

Ethnology – Science dealing with different races of mankind.

Etiology – Study of the life cycle of the pathogen, especially on host and cause of disease.

Eugenics – Improvement of body functions and development through genetic engineering, medical and other means.

Euphenics – Improvement of body functions and development through genetic engineering, medical and other means.

Euthenics – Science dealing with improving conditions connected with humans.

Exobiology – Search of life in outer space.

Floriculture – Cultivation of plants for their flowers.

Genealogy – Study of the genetic composition of the population in relation to habitat or environment.

Genetic Engineering – Manipulation genes for developing a desired genetic constitution.

Genetics – Science of heredity and variations.

Gerontology – Study of aging and senescence.

Gnotobiotics – Germ-free culture/life.

Helminthology – Study of parasitic worms.

Herpetology – Study of reptiles and amphibians/creeping animals.

Histology – Study of tissues.

Ichthyology – Study of fishes.

Karyology – Study of cell nucleus and chromosomes.

Karyotaxonomy – Taxonomy based on peculiarities of the nucleus, chromosome number, and type.

Kinesiology – Science dealing with inter-relationship of anatomy and physiology with respect to movements.

Lepidopterology – Study of moths and butterflies.

Malacology – Study of mollusks

Mastology – Study of breasts including teats.

Microbiology – Study of microorganisms or organisms less than 0.1mm.

Molecular Biology – Study of synthesis and interactions of biomolecules in relation to various life processes.

Morphology – Study of form and structure.

Mycology – Study of fungi.

Myology (Sarcology) – Study of muscles.

Myrmecology – Study of ants.

Neonatology – Scientific study of a newborn.

Nephrology – Study of kidneys

Nidology – Study of nests of birds.

Obstetrics – Midwifery or science connected with the care of pregnant woman before, during and after childbirth.

Occupational Therapy – Treating mental and physical defects with the occupation.

Olericulture – Cultivation of vegetables.

Oncology – Study of cancers and tumors.

Oology – Study of eggs, particularly those of birds.

Ornithology – The study of birds.

Otorhinolaryngology – Study of ENT or ear, nose and throat.

Palaeobotany – Study of fossil plants and their impressions.

Palynology – Study of pollen grains and other spores.

Parasitology – Study of parasites.

Phenology – Recording, and study of periodic.

Photobiology – Effect of light on various biological processes.

Phycology – Study of algae.

Physiology – Study of body functions.

Phytogeny – Evolution, and development of plants.

Phytogeography – Study of the geographical distribution of plants.

Pisciculture – Rearing, catching, and management of fishes.

Pomology – Science dealing with fruits and fruit yielding plants.

Protozoology – Study of protozoans and related organisms.

Saurology – Study of lizards.

Sericulture – Rearing silkworms for extraction of silk.

Serology – Study of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood.

Silviculture – Cultivation of forest trees.

Sitology – Science of food, diet, and nutrition (Dietetics).

Sonography – Ultrasound imaging.

Spelaeology – Study of caves and cave life.

Splanchnology – Study of body viscera.

Syndesmology – Branch of anatomy dealing with ligaments and articulations.

Taxidermatology – Processing of skins and stuffing.

Taxonomy – Study of classification, Nomenclature, and identification of organisms.

Tectology – Study of structural organization of animals.

Teratology – Study of abnormalities during embryogenesis.

Traumatology – Study of wounds.

Tricology – Study of hairs.

Trophology – Science of nutrition.

Urobiology – Science of preservation of dead in liquid chemicals.

More Useful Information

Claustrophobia – Fear of enclosure.