Connecting link Between living and non-living
|Non-living Characters|| Living Characters|
- These can be crystallized like inorganic and organic compound.
- Cell organelles remain absent.
- Lack of growth and metabolism
- Undergo mutation
- Reproduction in the living cell.
- Shows recombination and heritability.
Connecting link between plants and animals
| Animal Characters|| Plant Characters|
- The body is covered by the pellicle. cell wall absent.
- Reproduction is like animals.
- Having chlorophyll and chloroplast.
- Nutrition is holotypic or autotrophic.
- Synthesize their food through photosynthesis.
Connecting link Between Annelida and Arthropods
|Annelidan Characters|| Arthropods Characters|
- The presence of thick cuticle.
- Body is pseudo segmented and worm-like.
- The excretory organ is nephridia.
- Presence of antennae
- Respiratory organ is trachea
Connecting link Between Annelida and Mollusca
| Annelidan Characters||Molluscan Characters|
- The presence of trochophore larva.
- Presence of 5-6 pairs of ctenidia, 6 pairs of nephridia, 8 pairs of retracer muscles and two pairs of auricles
- Presence of shell and mantle.
- The presence of a flat muscular foot as found in Chiton.
Connecting link Between Non-Chordate and Chordate
| Chordate Characters|| Non-chordate Characters|
- Presence of a dorsal hollow nerve cord
- The notochord is present.
- Presence of pharyngeal gills slits (Pharyngotremy)
- Body vermiform
- Burrowing habit.
- Dorsal position of the heart.
- The nervous system is poorly developed and form epidermal nerve plexus.
Connecting link Between Protozoa and Porifera
| Protozoan Characters||Sponge Characters|
- It is a colonial protozoan
- Its cells are similar to choanocytes or collar cells of sponges
7. Prototherians(Egg-laying mammals)
Connecting link Between Reptiles and Mammals
|Reptilian Characters|| Mammalian Characters|
- Presence of cloaca.
- They lay eggs which are reptilian in structure and development.
- Embryonic development is similar to reptiles.
- Presence of hairs.
- They produce milk and nourish their children.
- They have mammary glands.
- Presence of diaphragm.
8. Lungfish (Group-Dipnoi)
Connecting link Between Fish and Amphibian
|Fish Characters|| Amphibian Characters|
- The presence of paired fins.
- Gills are present.
- The presence of lateral line sense organ.
- Ear represented by internal ear only.
- The presence of internal nostrils of chonae.
- Presence of lungs i.e., modified air bladders.
- Heart with imperfectly divided auricle.
Missing link Between Reptiles and Birds
Archaeopteryx (also called lizard-bird). The fossils of Archaeopteryx litho-graphica were discovered in 1861 A.D. by Andreas Wagner from the Upper Jurassic limestone rocks (about 180 million years old) of Solenhofen in Bavaria, Germany.It is a missing link between reptiles and birds. It was about the size of a crow and had both reptilian and avian characters.
The extinct connecting link is known as the Missing link.Its fossil was discovered by Wagner from limestone rocks of Jurassic Period in Germany.The characters below show that the birds have evolved from the reptilian ancestors. Huxley called the birds as glorified reptiles.
|Avian Characters|| Reptiles Characters|
- The presence of feathers on the body.
- Rounded cranium with the intimate fusion of bones.
- Forelimbs modified into wings and have only three fingers.
- Presence of 4-toes in each foot and adapted for perching as in the birds.
- Presence of furcula or wishbone.
- Presence of teeth in beak.
- Each finger ending into a claw.
- A long tail with free caudal vertebrae.