The control of conception by preventive methods or devices to restrict the number of offspring is called birth control. Many methods are available for birth control. All the birth control methods which carefully prevents fertilization are referred to as contraception. These methods of the family planning act by blocking one of the three major steps in the reproductive processes: By blocking sperm transport to the ovum, blocking ovulation and by blocking implantation of the early embryo.
Birth control methods are grouped into following three types:-
- Temporary methods
- Permanent methods
- Medical termination of pregnancy
Terminal Methods Of Family Planning
- The techniques are also called as Sterilization procedures.
- They are permanent methods of family planning.
- The methods are surgical or operative procedures which block the passage of semen in males and ova in females.
- They are called Vasectomy in males and Tubectomy in females.
It is a surgical method of sterilization of males Vasa deferentia are blocked by cutting and closing them so that sperms are unable to pass down the male reproductive system.
Conventional Vasectomy ( Scalpel Surgery)
- Under local anesthesia, transverse 1 cm incision is made through the skin of the scrotum over the area of Vasa deferentia.
- The two ends are separated and tied, and a gap of 1-4 cm is must between the two ends otherwise reunion can occur.
- In this, instead of scalpel, a dissecting forceps and a ringed forceps are required.
- The skin is punctured, and the vas is taken out. It is occluded by removal of 1-2 followed by ligation of ends.
Tubectomy is a surgical procedure of female sterilization.In this, a portion of both the fallopian tubes is excised or ligated to block the passage of ovum through them.
- Tubectomy is performed by conventional transabdominal surgery, conventional laparotomy and milaparotomy.
- In surgical procedures, the fallopian tubes are cut and then cut ends tied to prevent the reunion.
- In laparoscopic procedure, sterlisation is achieved by loop development and constricting the basal region of loop with the help of silistics ring.
Inability to conceive or produce children inspire of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. It is caused by various reasons which can be grouped under physical, congenital, immunological or even psychological disorders. The couples are assisted with certain special techniques known as assisted reproductive technologies.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART)
It includes many unique techniques which help infertile couples in having children. Some appropriate methods of ART are:
- Test tube baby program
- Artificial insemination technique (AIT)
- Gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT)
- Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)