Questions based on topic:
1. Two Kingdoms constantly figured in all biological classifications are?
[A] Plantae & Animalia
[B] Monera & Animalia
[C] Protista & Animalia
[D] Protista & Plantae
ANSWER: –[A] Plantae & Animalia
Kingdom Plantae & Animalia present since two kingdom system of classification.
2. The smallest taxon is called?
ANSWER: –[D] Species
Species is the smallest taxon which is basic unit in taxonomy.
3. Phylogenetic system of classification was given by?
[D] De jussieu
ANSWER: –[C] Hutchinson
John Hutchinson was the keeper of the royal botanical garden, Kew, England. He proposed the use of evolution & phylogeny in taxonomy. His famous books – The families of flowering plants & British flowering plants
4. National Botanical Research Institute is situated at?
ANSWER: –[C] Lucknow
5. The term New Systematics was given by?
[C] John ray
[D] Julian Huxley
ANSWER: –[D] Julian Huxley
The term New Systematics proposed by Julian Huxley in 1940. Also known as Biosystematics. In this Taxonomic affinity on the basis of evolutionary genetics & morphological traits is considered.
6. Binomial nomenclature is first mentioned in the book?
[A] Systema Naturae
[B] Historia Animalium
[C] Historia Plantarum
[D] Philosophie Zoologique
ANSWER: -[A] -Systema Naturae
Systema naturae authored by Carolus Linnaeus 1758.
7. Cladistic is a system of?
[B] Numerical taxonomy
[C] Phylogenetic classification
[D] Biochemical classification
ANSWER: –[C] Phylogenetic classification
Cladistics is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group’s most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors.
8. The term Taxonomy was given by?
[D] de Condolle
ANSWER: –[D] de Condolle
Term Taxonomy given by deCondolle in 1813.
9. The arrangement of taxa is?
[A] Natural classification
ANSWER: –[C] Hierarchy
Hierarchy means arrangement of taxon from Kingdom to species
10. Scala naturae was written by?
[D] de Condolle
ANSWER: –[A] Aristotle
This book is based upon God’s creation (Great chain of being). Aristotle placed simple creatures at
bottom & Humans on top to create a hierachy of living beings.
11. Book Philosophie Zoologique is written by?
[C] John ray
[D] De jussieu
ANSWER: –[A] Lamarck
Philosophie Zoologique is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution now known as Lamarckism. In the book, Lamarck named two supposed laws that would enable animal species to acquire characteristics under the influence of the environment. The first law stated that use or disuse would cause body structures to grow or shrink over the generations. The second law asserted that such changes would be inherited. Those conditions together imply that species continuously change by adaptation to their environments, forming a branching series of evolutionary paths.
12. Who proposed famous statement “Taxonomy without phylogeny is like bone without flesh”?
[D] H. Santapau
ANSWER: –[C] Takhtajan
Takhtajan was an Russian Botanist who worked on angiosperm taxonomy & big promoter of Phylogenetic relationship in taxonomy. Worked at the Komarov Botanical Institute in Leningrad, now named St.Petersburg. He published his classification in 1954 in Russian which was translated in English as “The Origin of Angiospermous Plants” (1958). He classified the angiosperms up to the family level. He considered evidences from various branches of botany, (anatomy, embryology, palynology, vegetative and floral morphology), as well as chemical features, geographical distribution etc. for the delimitation and circumscription of orders and families. Thus his classification is more phylogenetic in nature.
13. A group of interconnected Genera is called?
ANSWER: –[A] Family
Interconnected genera placed in a Family
14. Bacteria placed in which kingdom?
ANSWER: –[B] Monera
15. Kingdom – Phylum – (A) – Order – (B) – Genus – Species; Identify (A) & (B) ranks?
[A] Class & Family
[B] Family & Class
[C] Subphylum & Subgenus
[D] Super order & Family
ANSWER: –[A] Class & Family
Correct order is : Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order – Family – Genus – Species
16. Ray fungi belongs to which kingdom?
ANSWER: –[A] Monera
Ray fungi is common name of soil bacteria Actinomyces. They are prokaryotic but having fungi like
17. When Organism is in same Class but not in same family, the taxonomic term is called as?
ANSWER: –[A] Order
Order placed in class, in an order there may be several families
18. What are the clear indications, we can get by knowing Scientific name of an organism?
[A] Genus & Family
[B] Phylum & Genus
[C] Genus & Species
[D] Order & Species
ANSWER: –[C] Genus & Species
Scientic name have two words : First word represents Genus & Second word represents Species. e.g.
19. Helically Coiled shaped bacteria are called?
ANSWER: –[A] Spirilla
- Spirillum – Coiled shaped
- Cocci – Spherical
- Bacilli – Rod shape
- Vibrio – Comma shape
20. Bacterial flagella is made up of?
ANSWER: –[B] Proteins
Bacterial flagella made up of Flagellin protein
21. In bacteria, the site for respiration is?
ANSWER: –[B] Mesosome
Mesosome are analogous to mitochondria.
22. Rickettsia is a group of?
[D] None of these
ANSWER: –[D] None of these
Rickessia is a group of bacteria. placed in kingdom Monera.
23. Bacteria was discovered by?
ANSWER: –[D] Leeuwenhoeck
24. Mature sperms are stored in the?
[A] Vas deferens
[B] Seminal vesicle
[C] Seminiferous tubules
ANSWER: –[D] Epididymis
25. Spermatogenesis takes an average?
[A] 64 Days
[B] 81 Days
[C] 90 Days
[D] 74 Days
ANSWER: –[A] 64 Days
The approximate 64-day cycle of the spermatogenesis can be subdivided into four phases that last
differing lengths of time:
(1) Mitosis of the spermatogonia– 16 days;
(2) First meiosis– 24 days
(3) Second meiosis – A few hours
(4) Spermiogenesis – 24 days;
so Total ~64 days
26. Estradiol is synthesised by?
[A] theca interna
[B] theca externa
[D] corona radiata
ANSWER: –[C] granulosa
The key steroid hormone produced by granulosa cells is estradiol.
27. The male sex hormone testosterone is secreted from?
[A] Vas deferens
[B] Seminal vesicle
[C] Leydig’s cell
ANSWER: –[C] Leydig’s cell
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle. They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH).
28. The uterus layer which sloughs of in every menstrual cycle is?
ANSWER: –[D] Endometrium
The endometrium is the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the uterus (womb). The
endometrium changes throughout the menstrual cycle. It becomes thick and rich with blood vessels to prepare for pregnancy. If the woman does not get pregnant, part of the endometrium is shed, causing menstrual bleeding.
29. The nutritive cells found in seminiferous tubule are?
[A] Leydig cells
[B] Follicular cells
[C] sertoli cells
ANSWER: –[C] -sertoli cells
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a “nurse” cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis; that is, the production of sperm. Its main function is to nourish the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell has also been called the “mother” or “nurse” cell. Sertoli cells also act as phagocytes, consuming the residual cytoplasm during spermatogenesis. Translocation of germ cells from the base to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules occurs by conformational changes in the lateral margins of the Sertoli cells.
30. Site of Fertilization is?
ANSWER: –[D] Vagina
31. Implantation takes place in?
[A] 5th days
[B] 6th day
[C] 7th day
[D] 3rd day
ANSWER: – –
32. Implantation of the zygote takes place at which of the following embryonic stage?
[D] Any of these
ANSWER: –[C] Blastula
Implantation occurs at Blastula stage
33. Gastrula is the embryonic stage in which?
[A] Cleavage occurs
[B] Blastocoel formed
[C] villi form
[D] Germinal layers form
ANSWER: –[C] Germinal layers form
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals during which the single layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar (three-layered) structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
34. Which one is released from the Ovary?
[A] Primary Oocyte
[B] Secondary Oocyte
ANSWER: –[B] Secondary Oocyte
Secondary Oocyte released from the ovary during ovulation
35. Preparation of sperm before penetration of Ovum is?
[B] Cortical reaction
ANSWER: –[C] Capacitation
capacitation is a functional maturation of the spermatozoon. The changes take place via the sperm cell membrane in which it may be that receptors are made available through the removal of a glycoprotein layer. The area of the acrosomal cap is also so altered thereby that the acrosome reaction becomes possible.
36. The hollow ball of cells formed from cleavage is known as?
ANSWER: –[D] Blastula
Blastula, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated cleavage of a fertilized egg. The cells of the blastula form an epithelial (covering) layer, called the blastoderm, enclosing a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel.
37. Fertilizin is a chemical substance produced from?
[A] Polar bodies
[B] Middle peice of sperm
[D] Mature Oocyte/egg
ANSWER: –[D] Mature Oocyte/egg
Fertilizin : a sperm-agglutinating agent that is produced by an egg and plays a part in the preliminaries
38. Edible mushroom is?
ANSWER: –[D] Agaricus
Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms edible species. The genus includes the common mushroom and the
39. Heterothallism was discovered by?
ANSWER: –[C] DeBary
Discovery of heterothallism in Mucorales by Blakeslee
40. Dolipore septum is found in?
ANSWER: –[B] Basidiomycetes
Basidiomycota have a septal structure called adolipore septum that is composed of a pore cap surrounding a septal swelling and septal pore
41. Virus multiplies in
[B] Decaying matter
[C] Aartificial medium
[D] Living tissue
ANSWER: –[D] Living tissue
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasite.
42. In viruses, Capsid made up of?
ANSWER: –[D] Protein
43. Virus was discovered by?
ANSWER: –[B] Ivanowsky
44. Viroids are?
[D] Naked infective RNA
ANSWER: –[D] Naked infective RNA
Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known. They are solely composed of a short strand of circular, single-stranded RNA without protein coat
45. In TMV capsid, how many capsomeres are present?
ANSWER: –[A] 2130
TMV is the most thoroughly studied plant virus, its protein coat (capsid) is made up of about 2,130 capsomeres.
46. T.O Diener discovered a?
[A] Free infectious nucleoprotein
[B] Infectious protein
[D] Free infectious RNA
ANSWER: –[D] Free infectious RNA
Diener discovered Viroids , made up of RNA.
47. Cauliflower mosaic virus contains?
ANSWER: –[C] dsDNA
48. Transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by the virus is called?
ANSWER: –[C] Transduction
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. An example is the viral transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another.
49. Which is a bacterial disease?
[A] Small pox
ANSWER: –[C] -Leprosy
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae (Bacteria)
50. Fire Algae are members of?
ANSWER: –[B] Dinophyceae
Dinoflagellates are called fire algae because some forms of these protists are bioluminescent, meaningt hat they are living organisms that produce and emit light. Early botanists classified dinoflagellates as a separate division of algae, which they named Pyrrophyta, after the Greek word pyrr(h)os, meaning fire.
51. The characteristic Spores of diatoms are called?
ANSWER: –[B] Auxospore
Size is restored in diatoms through a special cell called the ‘auxospore’ (meaning growth- or growing spore).
52. Red tide is caused by?
[D] Slime moulds
ANSWER: –[A] Dinoflagellates
Red tide is a common name for a phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms) when it is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown color.
53. The Kingdom Protista does not include?
[B] Photosynthetic organism
[C] Flagellate organism
[D] Nucleoid organism
ANSWER: –[D] Nucleoid organism
Nucleoid organisms are bacteria, placed in Monera
54. Conidia are?
[A] Motile endospores
[B] Nonmotile endospores
[C] Nonmotile exospores
[D] Motile exospores
ANSWER: –[C] Nonmotile exospores
Conidium, a type of asexual reproductive spore of fungi (kingdom Fungi) usually produced at the tip or side of hyphae (filaments that make up the body of a typical fungus) or on special spore-producing structures called conidiophores. The nonmotile spores detach when mature.
55. Mycelium is coenocytic in?
ANSWER: –[A] Zygomycetes
Coenocytic & nonseptate mycelium seen in Phycomycetes (also known as zygomycetes)
56. Mycorrhiza exhibits the phenomenon of?
ANSWER: –[A] parasitism
A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant. The
term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungi in the plants’ rhizosphere, its root system.
57. Clamp connections are observed in?
ANSWER: –[B] Basidiomycetes
At the time of reproduction, the protoplasts of two uninucleate cells of the primary mycelium fuse. However only the protoplasts of the two cells fuse without nuclear fusion, i.e. plasmogamy occurs without karyogamy. Thus a dikaryotic condition begins when a single cell with two nuclei of different mating types is formed. This phase is the dominant phase of the life cycle in most Basidiomycota.Such a cell is called a dikaryon. The secondary mycelium originates from this dikaryon. dikaryotic mycelium arises from the dikaryotic cell. A special mechanism is required to ensure that sister nuclei arising from the conjugate division of the two nuclei are segregated properly in the two daughter cells. This mechanism functions through special hyphal structures called clamp connections. Seen in Basidiomycetes
58. Yeast belongs to which of the following class?
ANSWER: –[D] Ascomycetes
59. Lichens are
ANSWER: –[D] Symbiont
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
60. Agar is obtained from?
ANSWER: –[B] Algae
The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species
of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria.
61. Heterocyst are found in few members of?
ANSWER: –[A] -Monera
Heterocyst present in blue green algae which are prokaryotic organisms, belongs to kingdom monera
62. Cuscuta is a
ANSWER: –[A] Parasite
Cuscuta is a parasitic plant. It has no chlorophyll and cannot make its own food by photosynthesis. Instead, it grows on other plants, using their nutrients for its growth and weakening the host plant.
63. Which is a chemotropic agent in gynoecium?
[A] K+ ions
[B] Ca++ ions
[C] Mg++ ions
ANSWER: –[B] Ca++ ions
Calcium ion provide chemotropic stimulus.
64. Fertilization occurs inside?
ANSWER: –[D] Embryosac
65. Aleurone layer is a part of?
ANSWER: –[A] Endosperm
The aleurone layer is the outermost layer of the endosperm, followed by the inner starchy endosperm. This layer of cells is sometimes referred to as the peripheral endosperm.
66. Tapetum is found in?
ANSWER: –[B] Anther
Inner most wall layer of anther is Tapetum.
67. Filiform apparatus is characteristic of?
[A] All seven cells of embryosac
[B] Three cells of embryosac
[C] Two cells of embryosac
[D] One cell of embryosac
ANSWER: –[C] Two cells of embryosac
The synergid cell wall forms a highly thickened structure called the filiform apparatus at the micropylar
end, consisting of numerous finger-like projections into the synergid cytoplasm.
68. Function of contractile vacuole in protozoa is?
ANSWER: –[A] -Osmoregulation
69. Which class of protozoa is totally parasitic?
ANSWER: –[A] Sporozoa
70. Entamoeba differs from Amoeba in the absence of?
[D] Contractile vacuole
ANSWER: –[D] Contractile vacuole
Contractile vacuole not present in parasitic amoeba. As they live in isotonic tissue. e.g. Entamoeba in
71. Prostrate gland secretions helps in the formation of?
ANSWER: –[D] Semen
The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ whose main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of
the components of semen.
72. Corpus luteum is developed from?
[B] Primordial Follicle
[D] Graafian follicle
ANSWER: –[D] Graafian follicle
Corpus luteum, yellow hormone-secreting body in the female reproductive system. It is formed in an
ovary at the site of a graafian follicle that has matured and released its ovum, or egg, in the process known as ovulation.
73. The cavity of Gastrula is called?
ANSWER: –[B] -Archenterone
Archenteron is the primitive enteron or digestive cavity of a gastrula
74. Spermatogenesis is promoted by?
ANSWER: –[D] Testosterone
75. Corpus luteum secretes?
ANSWER: –[B] Progesterone
76. Acrosome is a type of?
[C] Basal body
ANSWER: –[A] Lysosome
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus. It is considered as a big Lysosome.
77. Repair of endometrium is undertaken by?
ANSWER: –[C] Oestrogen
Production of oestrogen which is required for ovulation and thickening of the endometrium.
78. HPO axis play important role in?
[B] Menstrual cycle
[D] None of these
ANSWER: –[B] Menstrual cycle
The hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis coordinates the menstral cycle. The development and release of these eggs is under control of two main pituitary hormones – luteneizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) – which are in turn under control of the hypothalamic hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), as well as estrogen.
79. Failure of descent of testis in scrotal sac is called?
ANSWER: –[C] Cryptorchidism
An undescended testicle happens when one or both of a child’s testicles do not drop down into the
scrotum before birth. This condition is called “cryptorchidism.”
80. Middle peice of a mammalian sperm contains?
ANSWER: –[C] Mitochondria
81. Which parasite is transmitted by Sand fly?
ANSWER: –[B] Leishmania
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type. It is spread by the bite of
certain types of sandflies.
82. What is not true for Lichens?
[A] Indicator of SO2 pollution
[B] Source of Litmus
[C] Pioneer organism in Xerosere
[D] Member of Kingdom Fungi
ANSWER: –[D] Member of Kingdom Fungi
Lichens show a great ability to concentrate nutrients from very dilute sources and indiscriminately absorb any toxic substances from the atmosphere (e.g. sulphur dioxide, fluorides and heavy metals). Many lichen species are highly susceptible to air pollution, especially to pollution by sulphur dioxide.Lichens are amongst the first organisms to colonize barren surfaces (e.g. road cuttings, rock outcrops, and volcanic ash) and prepare these areas for later plants by trapping moisture and windblown organic debris and then contributing to the organic deposits when they themselves die and decay. Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator.
83. Viruses as “Contagium vivum fluidum” was said by?
ANSWER: –[C] Beijerinck
Beijerinck asserted that the virus was somewhat liquid in nature, calling it “contagium vivum fluidum”
(contagious living fluid)
84. AIDS is caused by?
ANSWER: –[B] HIV
HPV – Human papiloma virus (Cervical cancer)
HIV – Human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)
TMV -Tobacco mosaic virus
HSV – Herpes simplex virus (Heepes)
85. A viral DNA integrated into bacterial genome is called?
ANSWER: –[C] Prophage
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to “phage”) genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome.
86. Which bacteria is associated with the roots of legumes?
ANSWER: –[B] Rhizobium
87. Coleoptile is
[A] Covering of Root
[B] Covering of seed
[C] Covering of bud
[D] Covering of plumule
ANSWER: –[D] Covering of plumule
Coleoptile is a pointed sheath that cover plumule in a monocot embryo. Coleorhiza is a sheath that
cover radicle in a seed.
88. False fruit is
ANSWER: –[A] Apple
Botanically speaking, true fruit is the one that is formed when ovary (part of flower) ripens. In apple,
major part of fruit is formed from thalamus not from ovary. So, it is known as false fruit.
89.Feathery Stigma are present in?
ANSWER: –[A] -Wheat
In major cereal crops are Wheat, Rice, Corn, Barley, Rye, Oat, and include the millets, have of styles with feathery stigmas, and a superior ovary with one locule. All are wind pollinated.
90. Fungus without any mycelium is?
ANSWER: –[D] Saccharomyces
Saccharomyces is Yeast which is unicelled fungi that’s why not having mycelium.
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