Cancers Of Endocrine Organs In Human

The type of cancer explained in this article are :

  1. Thyroid cancer
  2. Medullary thyroid cancer
  3. Parathyroid carcinoma
  4. Adrenal carcinoma
  5. Malignant paraganglioma
  6. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN)


Thyroid cancer

KEGG – H00032 , Wikipedia – Some Basic of Thyroid Cancer

  1.  Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.[PMID: 16557281]
  2. The overview of the Papillary thyroid carcinoma [PMID: 16831036]
  3.  Diagnosis and treatment of Follicular thyroid carcinoma[PMID: 16807500]
  4. Molecular detection of thyroid cancer. [PMID: 15521953]
  5.  Introduction to Thyroid cancer.  [PMID: 11165748]
  6.  Molecular pathology of thyroid carcinomas.  [PMID: 16189702]
  7. Radium-224 is used for the treatment of Malignancies in patients  [PMID: 10564925]
  8. How genes rearranged in radiation‐induced thyroid carcinogenesis. [PMID: 11340615]
  9. The facts and fiction of thyroid cancer associated with Radiation [PMID: 9743453]

Medullary thyroid cancer

KEGG – H01592 , Wikipedia – Medullary thyroid cancer

  1.  Molecular pathology of medullary thyroid carcinomas. [PMID: 25972318]
  2.  The cytologic and molecular features of medullary thyroid carcinoma.  [PMID: 24316908]
  3. Diagnosis of Medullary thyroid cancer diagnosis [PMID: 23955938]
  4. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of medullary thyroid carcinoma.[PMID: 26494384]
  5. Medical management of medullary thyroid cancer. [PMID: 24942936]


Parathyroid carcinoma

KEGG – H01558  , Wikipedia – Parathyroid carcinoma

  1. Diagnosis and Clinical Implications of Parathyroid Carcinoma [PMID: 26177319]
  2.  Introduction of Parathyroid cancer.  [PMID: 26312219]
  3. Genetic and epigenetic changes in parathyroid tumors. [PMID: 24035866 ]
  4. A 70 case study of Parathyroid carcinoma. [PMID: 20510594]
  5. Parafibromin, galectin-3, PGP9. 5, Ki67, and cyclin D1: in the diagnosis of parathyroid cancer. [PMID: 25002250]
  6.  The role of parafibromin, galectin-3, HBME-1, and ki-67 in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid tumors. [PMID: 26675091]
  7. Update on parathyroid carcinoma.[PMID: 27001435]


Adrenal carcinoma

This is the most common type of adrenal cancer. Adrenal carcinoma is also known as Adrenocortical carcinoma or adrenal cortex cancer. Adrenal glands(located on the top of each kidney) has two layers, outer-cortex, and inner-medulla. It is typically formed in the outer cortex layer of the adrenal gland. In adrenal carcinoma the adrenocorticotropic hormone(released from anterior pituitary gland), potassium levels are low and aldosterone(produced in zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex), cortisol(made in the adrenal cortex of adrenal gland) levels are high. Most of the time the male or female hormone level are abnormally high.Apart from these changes, other symptoms are – Buffalo hump, moon face, obesity, virilization.

KEGG – H00033 Wikipedia – Adrenal carcinoma

  1.  Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of Adrenocortical carcinoma [PMC:4490795]
  2. The molecular genetics of ACC.  [PMID: 17934868]
  3. Molecular adrenocortical tumorigenesis.  [PMID: 11281372]
  4. Histopathological and molecular analysis of Adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma[PMID: 12920217]
  5. The pathogenesis of hereditary, sporadic adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors.  [PMID: 12466322]

Malignant paraganglioma


KEGG – H01510 Wikipedia – Malignant paraganglioma

  1. Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: from genetics to personalized medicine.[PMID: 25385035]
  2. Clinical and molecular progress in hereditary paraganglioma. [PMID: 18978332]
  3.  The genetics of paragangliomas[PMID: 17298303]
  4. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. [PMID: 24891137]
  5.  Diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma.[PMID: 22851969]
  6.  The management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. [PMID: 17914089 ]

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

KEGG – H00045  Wikipedia – Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

  1.  Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Challenges in an underestimated disease. [PMID: 27021395]
  2.  Molecular pathogenesis and targeted therapy of sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  [PMID: 25619712]
  3. A tale of two tumors: treating pancreatic and extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  [PMID: 25341008]
  4.  Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  [PMID: 24828360]
  5.  Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: current opinions on a rare, but potentially curable neoplasm.  [PMID: 24987821]
  6. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis, and treatment. [PMID: 23237225]
  7.  Molecular pathology and genetics of pancreatic endocrine tumors.  [PMID: 22586144]
  8. Clinical features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  [PMID: 25689919]


Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN)

KEGG – H00247  Wikipedia – Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN)

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasms.  [PMID: 18328987]
  2. Germ-line mutations in p27Kip1 cause a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans. [PMC:1622862]
  3. multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes.  [PMID: 17037976]
  4. Mechanisms of Disease: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1–relation to chromatin modifications and transcription regulation. [PMID: 17024155]
  5.  Molecular genetics of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2. [PMID: 15864278]
  6.  Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome: genetic basis for clinical management. [PMID: 15608505]
  7.  Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4).  [PMID: 23933118]
  8.  Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes.  [PMID: 24931355]